Day 1 :
Tuskegee University, USA
Time : 10:00-10:45
James received her Bachelor of Science degree from Clark Atlanta University, her Master of Public Health from Rollin’s School of Public Health at Emory University, her Juris Doctorate from University of Houston, and her license to practice law from the State of Georgia, all by the age of twenty-six. she served as the Program Manager for the Public Health Sciences Institute at Morehouse College. James has also worked with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists National Office as Program Director for Infectious Diseases and Environmental Health programs. she also founded Chrysalis International Consulting, LLC a consulting firm. James has over twenty years of public health experience and extensive background in program planning and evaluation that she utilizes to enhance her new role as Department Head and Associate Professor in the Department of Graduate Public Health in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Tuskegee University.
The development of the concept of health security is traced to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) 1946 preamble to its constitution and WHO’s current definition of global health security and as a starting place for defining health security in the United States. It is argued that in ratifying the constitution the initial twenty counties accepted the intent and meaning of terms therein. The United States as one of the twenty initial ratifying nations and as a world leader in the detection and control of diseases has provided leadership and guidance to many lesser developed countries on how to address the environmental conditions and infectious agents that have marked a decrease in many illnesses that were prevalent in 1946. The United States Constitution has been interpreted to give the right to regulate for the general welfare of the people to the individual states in which citizens reside. Therefore, while there are many national agencies that have health policy authority the primary responsibility for the health status of individuals is determined by the state in which they reside. Highlighted are three ways that diseases are neglected and allowed to re-emerge in rural and other marginalized populations in the State of Alabama: 1) lack of surveillance; 2) lack of adequate environmental policies; 3) inadequate housing and other socio-economic indicators. Methods: Data from the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, United State Census Bureau American Community Survey 2011-2015, and the United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics as compiled in the Community Commons database were used to develop a community health assessment for three counties in rural Alabama (Macon, Lowndes, and Tallapoosa Counties). Review of local and state policies regarding surveillance, sanitation, and environmental health were assessed for impact on the health status of the community as demonstrated in the community health assessment. Results: The health indicators reviewed demonstrated that individuals living in the rural communities selected suffer from many health disparities and have adverse health effects from infections that are deemed to be endemic in lesser developed countries and not found in the United States. Discussion & Conclusions: The local and state policies regarding surveillance, sanitation, and environmental health are not adequately enforced to provide the necessary data to determine prevalence for some illnesses and environmental contamination. Data gaps, inadequate housing and enforcement delays are issues that many marginalized populations in Alabama and other rural communities confront that have led to health disparities and inhibit a culture of health for these Americans.v
- Human Bacteriology | Medical Bacteriology | Pathogenesis | Clinical Aspects of Bacterial Infections | Epidemiology
Location: Dubai, UAE
United Arab Emirates University,UAE
Dr Barigye is an Assistant Professor of Veterinary Pathology at the Department of Veterinary Medicine, United Arab Emirates University. Previously, he worked as a Senior Veterinary Pathologist at Berrimah Veterinary Laboratories in Australia and before that as Assistant Professor and Diagnostic Veterinary Pathologist at North Dakota State University in the US. He holds a PhD in Veterinary Science from UNAM, MSc with Distinction in Veterinary Pathology from the Royal Veterinary College, UK, a BVM degree from Uganda, and recently defended a MPhil degree thesis at the School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Australia. Besides, holds certification in Anatomic Veterinary Pathology from the Australian & New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists. Dr Barigye’s most recent research relates to the epidemiology of reproductive failure in sheep and goats caused by the zoonotic pathogens: Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetii, Chamydophila abortus and Toxoplasma gondii.
To date, no studies known to the authors have specifically evaluated the seroprevalence of Brucella spp, C. burnetti, C. abortus and T. gondii in livestock in the UAE. In addition, there no data on the potential role these agents may be playing in reproductive failure in domesticated small ruminants in the country. Without such data, the anecdotal statements attributing abortions and other forms of reproductive failure in sheep and goats to brucellosis have no scientific merit and need to be empirically substantiated in the UAE. Moreover, the potential zoonotic risk posed by the livestock-associated pathogens needs to be elucidated in the UAE. A serological survey was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii in sheep and goat herds in the UAE. A total of 915 blood samples [n= 222, [sheep]; n= 215, [goats]) were collected from livestock farms in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah and Ras Al-Khaimah (RAK). An additional 478 samples (n= 244, [sheep]; n= 234, (goats]) were collected from the Al Ain livestock central market and tested by indirect ELISA for pathogen-specific antibodies. Brucella antibodies were further corroborated by the Rose-Bengal agglutination test. Seropositivity for the four pathogens was variably documented in sheep and goats from the study area. Respectively, the overall livestock farm prevalence for Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii were 2.7%, 27.9%, 8.1%, and 16.7% for sheep, and 0.0%, 31.6%, 9.3%, and 5.1% for goats. Additionally, the seroprevalence of Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii in samples from the livestock market were 7.4%, 21.7%, 16.4%, and 7.0% for sheep, and 0.9%, 32.5%, 19.2%, and 11.1% for goats respectively. Overall, sheep had 12.59 more chances than goats of testing seropositive for Brucella spp (OR, 12.59 [95% CI 2.96 – 53.6]) but less likely to be positive for C. burnetii-antibodies (OR, 0.73 [95% CI 0.54 – 0.97]). Notably, the differences in the seroprevalence rates of C. abortus and T. gondii in sheep and goats were not statistically significant (p >0.050). The present data indicate that all the four study pathogens are present in sheep and goat populations in the UAE and that coxiellosis is the most seroprevalent followed by chlamydophilosis, toxoplasmosis, and brucellosis. While sheep from the livestock market were more likely than those from farms to be Brucella-seropositive, the overall exposure risk of C. burnetii appears to be greater for goats than sheep. As more animals from the livestock market were more likely to be seropositive to C. abortus, it is possible that under the UAE animal production conditions, at least, coxiellosis and chlamydophilosis are more likely to increase the culling rate of domesticated small ruminants than toxoplasmosis and brucellosis. While anecdotal reports have previously suggested that brucellosis may be a significant animal health risk in the UAE, the present data imply that C. burnetii, C. abortus and T. gondii may be more significant pathogens of sheep and goats in the country. However, the extent to which these pathogens may nationally be contributing to reproductive failure in sheep and goat herds is not known and needs to be investigated. Potentially, these agents may also carry a zoonotic risk to risk groups like farm workers, and slaughter house personnel. An ongoing study is evaluating the seroprevalence of bovine coxiellosis in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the data will further elucidate on the broader epidemiological dynamics of the disease in the national herd.
Kavita Diddi has completed her Post-graduation in Microbiology from AIIMS, New Delhi in India. There she was also involved in research activities related to dengue and chikungunya virus and published her work in various international and national journals. Before moving to UAE, she worked in private tertiary care hospital in India. Here in UAE, she is associated with Prime Health care group and taking care of microbiology division as well as infection control division.
Institut Pasteur, France
Claude Flamand has completed his PhD from Paris-Saclay University, France. He is currently the Head of Epidemiology Unit of Pasteur Institute in French Guiana and his main research interest is to study epidemics and infectious diseases outbreaks to better understand how pathogens spread in human populations. He has over 48 publications in the field of vector-borne and/or infectious tropical diseases that have been cited over 200 times and his publication H-index is 10.
Arboviral infections have become a significant public health problem with the emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases worldwide in recent decades. Given the increasing number of cases, geographic spread, but also health, social and economic impact of arboviral outbreaks, estimating their true burden represents a crucial issue but remains a difficult task. In French Guiana, the epidemiology of arboviral diseases has been marked by the occurrence several major dengue fever (DENV) outbreaks over the past few decades, recent emergences of Chikungunya (CHKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) and the circulation of Mayaro virus (MAYV). To assess antibody seroprevalence against DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV, MAYV a random 2-stage household cross-sectional survey was conducted among the general population. We enrolled 2,718 individuals aged 1-87 years from June 1 to 12 October 2017. We performed detection of DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV, MAYV IgG antibodies on collected blood samples using a Microsphere Immunoassay (MIA). Socio-economic data, environmental variables and exposure to mosquitoes, perceptions of the illness and risk of contracting arboviral infections were collected using a standardized questionnaire administrated to all individuals included in the survey. Overall seroprevalence rates for antibodies against ≥1 DENV were 68.8% [66.4%-71.2%] and differed significantly according to age and geographical area. Seroprevalence rates of CHIKV, ZIKV and MAYV antibodies were respectively 23.2% [20.5%-26.1%], 23.1% [20.7%-25.6%] and 11.2% [9.7%-13.0%] and did not differed significantly according to gender or age. The distribution of seroprevalence rates for ZIKV antibodies corroborate previous findings for pregnant women sampled during the 2016 ZIKV outbreak. Future steps will help to identify associated factors and to predict the risk of transmission in the different areas of the country.
RAK-Medical and Health Sciences University, UAE
Gastrointestinal parasitic infection is a major source of disease in people living with HIV/AIDS, especially in tropical countries. Diarrhoea is a common clinical manifestation of patients with HIV infection. Although gastrointestinal diseases occur in all age groups of immunocompromised patients, they occur with the greatest frequency (up to 90%) in patients with AIDS. Most of morbidity and mortality of advanced AIDS is associated with opportunistic intestinal parasites that cause debilitating infections in immocompromised individuals with low immune status as compared to the immunocompetent individuals. Protozoa are the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea particularly in developing countries. They are frequently transmitted by unhygienic habits such as direct transfer of ova or cysts from anal region to mouth, eating with unwashed hands, eating and drinking of contaminated food and drink and inappropriate disposal of night soil and human excreta. Most common enteric opportunistic parasites which have been associated with HIV/AIDS include: Cryptosporidium spp., Iso spora belli, Cyclospora spp., Microsporidium spp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica. Amongst the opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections, intracellular coccidial protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium and Isospora belli infection have been labeled as AIDS-defining illness and occur mostly at CD4 counts <200 cells/µl.